Financial support through the following projects:
UID/MAT/00297/2019
UID/MAT/00297/2013
PEstOE/MAT/UI0297/2014
PEstOE/MAT/UI0297/2011
Mathematical Biology    Mathematics for Human Health 
  Data Knowledge 
Ecology 
  Care and Ageing    Big Data 
Epidemiology   

  Machine Learning 
Evolution & Genetics   
Biology is nowadays a focal discipline for many sciences, and its connexion to mathematics, in particular, significantly grew during the last years (R.M. May, Uses and abuses of mathematics in biology. Science 303: 790–793, 2004). Complex mathematical models are increasingly used in studies from various fields of biology, and sophisticated computer applications produce results that support actions by decision makers.
The enormous variety of mathematical questions addressed (e.g, modelling suitable conditions for species, estimating impacts of climate change, study of emerging diseases, cancer modelling, etc), and the speed at which studies are developed to respond to pressing questions, are factors that incur serious risks regarding the suitability of models and, consequently, on conclusions and eventual decisions (A.J. Davis, L.S. Jenkinson, J.H. Lawton, B. Shorrocks, S. Wood, Making mistakes when predicting shifts in species range in response to global warming. Nature 391: 783786, 1998; L. Craig, Complexity and the problem of illposed questions in ecology, Ecological Complexity 8: 60–67, 2011). Thus, there is an urgent need for a greater interaction between mathematicians and biologists.